James Madison on checks and restraints

Our party believes that there needs to be two levels of checks and balances – vertical and horizontal. The vertical restraints come in the form of states and federal governments being able to contend with the other when one becomes oppressive of its citizens. Horizontal restraints are the balance of power that must be reinstated between the branches of government. Without the both types of checks and balances, we cannot have a proper equilibrium that keeps the will, rights, and needs of the people in the forefront.